prom dress - How To Choose Prom Dress Uk - Prom is among the most common activities in high school, and for anyone who is luchy to attend the party, picking out the ideal prom dress UK is seriously needed. Before getting your dress, under are some information you should take in thoughts, all of these will help you make certain if it can be right for you personally.
Dress Color - Choose a color that you just like and also you know appears superior on you. Be as bright and bold as you'd like. Neglect about what your pals are wearing - do you want to blend in or stand out? Contemplate the theme and decorations of the prom. Modern day themes are good for trialling new colors even though classic occasions may perhaps demand softer pastel shades.
Style & Length - It’s easy to over-complicate the look and length of one's prom dress. Prior to you start stressing about short skirts and full-length gowns, have a contemplate who you’re going with.
Accessories - Finish off your look and make your outfit your own by adding accessories such as jewellery, handbags and headbands. Not only are they nice to look at but they’re practical too - where else would you put your make up and ticket?
The Theme - Does your prom have a special theme that your outfit needs to abide by? A theme doesn’t have to mean fancy evening dress - especially for girls - just believe of it as an excuse to be even more dazzling!
prom dress - Flower Girl Dresses - hi
nice to meet u all
Here is someone Crazy about prom dresses
have a nice day
vwkoch's Blog - Handling Problem Behaviors - The usual question people ask when dealing with horses that have behavior problems is "how do I stop this behavior?" Another (better) question to ask is "what do I want my horse to do instead of this behavior?" Horses LEARN the behaviors they show around people, and it's up to us whether the behaviors we teach are good or bad.
B. F. Skinner elaborated the principles of learning many years ago. Simply put, rewarded behaviors increase in frequency, and punished behaviors decrease in frequency. Rewards (also called "reinforcement") and punishments are designated as "positive" or "negative" depending on whether something is added or subtracted. For example, treats are positive reinforcement, and letting a working horse stop and rest is negative reinforcement (subtracting the requirement to work). Historically, horses have mostly been trained with negative reinforcement.
The natural human reaction to problem behaviors is to punish them, usually by physical punishment such as hitting the horse (positive punishment). Negative punishment is more often used with kids than with horses (for example, taking away the car keys). However, people tend to do a bad job of punishment, so they often fail to succeed in stopping problem behaviors.
It's actually fairly difficult to perform punishment properly. Ideally, the punishment must be administered immediately after the problem behavior, every time the behavior occurs, and at exactly the right intensity. Unwanted side effects of punishment include making the animal fearful and/or aggressive. Punishment also creates a sort of vacuum --- it tells the animal what not to do, but it doesn't tell the animal what it should do instead of the problem behavior. Negative punishment is preferable to positive punishment, but no punishment is best of all.
So, if you shouldn't punish problem behaviors, how do you stop them? Think again about the principles of learning. Most problem behaviors are learned, which means they occur because they've been rewarded. The best way to stop them from continuing to occur is to stop them from being rewarded (a process called "extinction"). Be aware that, at the beginning of extinction, the problem behavior will actually increase, as the animal first tries harder to get the reward. Only when the animal finally realizes that it will no longer be rewarded will the behavior actually stop.
Many people, at this point, are probably thinking I'm crazy. They are convinced that they are punishing their horses' problem behaviors, not rewarding them. However, it is the HORSE that determines what is a reward or a punishment, not the handler. Many times, what we think is rewarding or punishing may not be seen that way by the horse.
The example I'll be using during this blog post is pawing, which is a problem behavior in many horses. So, let me start with using it to explain rewards vs. punishments. One reason why horses paw is because they're lonely and/or bored. Someone ties a horse up, then walks away and leaves it. The horse begins pawing, and the person yells at it. The person thinks that yelling at the horse is punishment. The horse sees it as a reward. It's gotten a reaction to its pawing, so (for at least a moment), it's no longer lonely or bored. When the reaction goes away, the horse paws again and gets another reaction. So, the pawing actually increases in frequency because it's being rewarded, not punished.
The first thing to do, then, in trying to stop a problem behavior is to identify what's rewarding it. The bare bones of a behavior analysis is identifying the behavior (something observable, like pawing) and what immediately precedes it (the antecedents) and follows it (the consequences). The antecedents (tying the horse up and leaving it alone) are usually what causes the behavior, and the consequences (yelling at it) are usually what rewards (or punishes) it. Identifying the antecedents and consequences should help you better understand why the behavior occurs. Tying the horse up and leaving it alone causes loneliness, boredom, and frustration. Frustration is what causes the horse to paw. Yelling at it does not decrease the frequency of pawing, so it is not seen by the horse as punishment. If the horse is lonely and bored, it may see being yelled at as rewarding, so the first step in decreasing the pawing is to stop yelling at the horse (remove the reward).
However, in looking at the antecedents, you've also identified the problem that tying the horse up and leaving it alone causes loneliness, boredom, and frustration. Pawing helps to alleviate the boredom and frustration, so pawing is what is called "self-rewarding" behavior. In other words, the pawing is still being rewarded even if you stop yelling at the horse. How do you address that snag?
As I noted above, one shortcoming of punishment is that it tells the animal what not to do, but it doesn't tell the animal what it should do instead of the problem behavior. The best way to get rid of a problem behavior is to choose an alternate behavior and reward that one instead of the unwanted behavior. If the problem behavior is self-rewarding, then the reward for the alternate behavior must be better than the reward for the problem behavior. The best alternate behavior is one that the animal can't perform at the same time as the problem behavior. (For example, a good alternate behavior for a dog that jumps on people would be sitting. The dog would be ignored if it ran up and jumped on someone but rewarded if it ran up and sat down in front of the person.)
An obvious alternate behavior for the pawing horse would be for it to stand quietly until the handler returns. Therefore, the plan would be to ignore the horse when it's pawing and reward it when it stands quietly. To succeed, you need to be able to reward the horse immediately when it does what you want (stands quietly).
Rewards come in two flavors. A primary reinforcer is something that is a natural reward for the animal, like a treat. A secondary reinforcer is something that is rewarding because it signals that a natural reward is coming. "Good boy!" is a secondary reinforcer if it is always followed by a treat (or some other natural reward). If it is only sometimes followed by a treat, it may or may not function as a secondary reinforcer. Therefore, if you are likely to say "good boy!" sometimes and NOT follow it with a treat, you might want to pick something else (like a clicker sound) to be your secondary reinforcer. The way to make something a secondary reinforcer is just to have a session or two where you make the sound and follow it up with the treat. When the animal starts looking for the treat as soon as it hears the sound, you know that the sound has become a secondary reinforcer.
To be able to reward a horse immediately for standing quietly while tied alone, you need a secondary reinforcer. Lets say youre using "good boy!" So, you tie the horse and walk off, and if it stands quietly, you say "good boy!", return and give it a treat. Ideally, it will stand quietly for at least a short time, so you can avoid the pawing altogether by rewarding the horse soon after you've left it, for standing quietly for a short period of time. Then, you just gradually increase the length of time it must stand quietly before getting rewarded. However, if it starts pawing immediately after you leave, you simply wait for a pause in the pawing, then say "good boy!" and reward it. The timing of the "good boy!" is critical. It must be clear to the horse that the reward is for standing still, NOT for pawing. Once the horse learns it will be rewarded for standing quietly, it will look forward to the reward, which will help decrease its loneliness, boredom, and frustration. At that point, the pawing should cease to be a problem.
Punishment tells an animal what NOT to do, which is exclusively negative and leaves the animal in a vacuum, wondering what it SHOULD do. Asking "how do I stop a behavior?" is equally negative, and it leads naturally to thinking about punishment. Rather than thinking about what you DON'T want, think about what you DO want, then reward the horse for doing what you want it to do. Thinking positively is always better than thinking negatively.
In other words, the answer to the question "how do I stop a problem behavior?" is to ask two better questions: "what is rewarding this behavior?" (so you can remove the reward) and "what behavior should I reward instead of rewarding this behavior?" You and your horse will both be happier if you focus on rewards instead of punishments. Try it!
vwkoch's Blog - Happy Holidays 2014 - Happy Holidays
At Christmas, for the last several years, my horse has tailored a popular Christmas carol to make her seasonal opinion known, and as always, I have opted to share it with others, because I believe most horses think pretty much the way mine does (that is, food is all-important):
I'm dreaming of a tasty Christmas ---
Treats coming in a steady flow.
Give me cookies, candy;
Mint chocolate's dandy;
And I love carrots, don't you know.
I'm dreaming of a tasty Christmas,
With every treat I've ever seen.
May my hay be fit for a queen,
And may all my Christmases be green.
As always, my horse will definitely get some extra treats to celebrate the holiday, so it should be a good one for both of us. May you and your horses also celebrate the day with wonderful gifts for the people and good food for the horses. Happy holidays and a wonderful 2015 to all!
vwkoch's Blog - The Gentleness Of Horses - I was musing the other day on the Connecticut judge who found that horses are a species naturally inclined to do mischief or be vicious. (See http://westernfarmpress.com/blog/horses-are-vicious-beasts-connecticut.) I was musing on it because my horse was standing quietly while being petted by two very young children in a park. She didnt know the children, and they didnt know horses. One was patting her hock, and the other was being held up by his father to pat her nose. I was allowing the children to pet my horse, in their total ignorance of any danger, because my horse knows children and I have total trust in her forbearance.
Animals, like people, have different personalities. Some people are vicious, and a few animals are, too. To say that an entire species of animal is vicious, though, is really a mind-boggling assertion when you think about it. For example, I wouldnt even say that TIGERS are a species naturally inclined to do mischief or be vicious. Tigers are powerful predators, and it is therefore inherently DANGEROUS to be around them, but it is also possible, and not uncommon, for a person to have a friendly relationship with a tiger. In other words, most tigers are not vicious, so it seems inaccurate to say that tigers are a species naturally inclined to do mischief or be vicious.
Like tigers, horses are inherently dangerous, but for different reasons. Horses are mostly dangerous because they are large and flighty and can easily injure people by accident. However, that type of danger does not make them vicious. They do bite and kick, so they can also injure people on purpose, but most people who get bitten by horses are bitten by accident while improperly feeding a horse. People are much less likely to be attacked by a horse than by another person, so to say that HORSES are a species naturally inclined to do mischief or be vicious is so wrong as to be outlandish.
The judge clearly didnt know horses and made his finding in ignorance, but in my opinion, ignorance is no excuse in this case. A judicial precedent is serious business, and this judges finding could have ended every horse business in Connecticut due to suddenly unaffordable insurance rates. Also, in my opinion, there is no such thing as a SPECIES naturally inclined to do mischief or be vicious (emphasis added), and the judge should have recognized that fact. I suspect that the wording he used comes from some poorly written law, but if so, he should have noted that, although a species (like tigers) may be inherently dangerous, no SPECIES is naturally inclined to do mischief or be vicious and therefore such decisions must be based on an INDIVIDUALS behavior.
At any rate, while watching my horse quietly endure the oblivious caresses of two very young children, I found myself pondering on the extent to which she was demonstrating the natural viciousness of her species. Perhaps, like Monte Pythons rabbit, there is a species of vicious horses living in caves somewhere. The horses I know, however, are of a truly gentle species. Im lucky to KNOW them.
Rachel.firstname.lastname@example.org's Blog - Please Help Me Find My Old Arabian Pony Mare, Lady , Regist Name Streetheart - If anyone has information on a Bay Arabian Pony Mare who's barn name was Lady, Registered Name STREETHEART who was boarded at the Four Season Farm (Fairview, PA) in I believe 2004 ish-2006 ish and previously owned by Dr. Webster will you please contact me? Unfortunately the new owners did not register her. She would be 26 now, born in 1988. She has three white stocking and a very distinct crooked blaze with a black/grey thumb print spot near her muzzle. She was my first horse as a young girl and my dad made us sell our horses when we started college in 2000-2001. She has produced at least 3 beautiful Morab foals. I would love to be reunited with her and visit her at the very minimum. Any information would be helpful! 850-384-1646 email@example.com.
peeps' Blog - Visalia Saddle. D.e. Walker Trade Mark - So I have this saddle it is a Visalia Stock saddle, trade marked by D.E walker. The number on the back is A27015. Beautiful Saddle with pouches on the front (they kind of make it look like a ranch/fence riding saddle). Anyway we called the company to see if they could give us a time frame of when it was made and got nothing. They said they cant help us, so does anybody have any idea of how to tell when it was made or any info on it. From what i have seen they are very historic saddles and that intrigues me a lot. I would really like more info!!!!
vwkoch's Blog - An Equine Behavior/welfare Research Fund - If such a thing existed, would you donate to an equine behavior/welfare research fund? I'm just curious. Funds for equine research are hard to come by --- especially funds for behavior/welfare research. I'm thinking of setting up such a fund in my will, but doing so means I won't be around to see the results. I would hope, though, that once such a fund existed, other people would donate to it, so that research in the field could be advanced. I thought it would be interesting to get comments from horse-related groups.
Mental health (welfare) is a difficult issue in animals, but much is possible with behavioral studies. For example, such studies can allow animals to tell us which of two environments (or enrichments) they prefer --- and how much more they prefer it. "Rebound" studies can indicate how much exercise horses WANT, while physiological studies could show how much they NEED. The Equine Research Foundation is currently doing studies of equine perception and cognition that I would consider worthy of funding. (See http://www.equineresearch.org/horse-research.html.) I would also consider more biologically based studies of perception and cognition to be worthy of consideration. What is important is that such studies should be well-designed, objective, and hypothesis-driven.
Several researchers have been conducting studies on how training techniques affect horses. Examples of subjects include “Variations in the timing of reinforcement as a training technique for foals”, “The use of blended positive and negative reinforcement in shaping the halt response of horses”, “Rein contact between horse and handler during specific equitation movements”, “Effects on behaviour and rein tension on horses ridden with or without martingales and rein inserts”, and “The effect of double bridles and jaw-clamping crank nosebands on temperature of eyes and facial skin of horses.” The purpose of these studies is to identify which training techniques are best or worst from a welfare standpoint.
Other studies approach behavior and welfare from a physiological standpoint. Examples include “Study of the behaviour, digestive efficiency and gut transit times of crib-biting horses”; “Behavioral and physiological responses of horses to head lowering”; “The ethological and physiological characteristics of cribbing and weaving horses”; and “The Behavioural and Physiological Effects of Virginiamycin in the Diets of Horses with stereotypies.” A lot of the physiological type work revolves around identifying possible causes of stereotypies, like cribbing, so that we can try to prevent and treat them successfully.
In addition to training techniques and stereotypies, popular topics for behavioral research include laterality (“handedness”), preferred (by the horse) transportation methods, geophagia (why horses eat dirt), diet effects, stress effects, drug effects, genetic effects, conformation effects, effects of changes in stalls (flooring, windows, mirrors, and so on), etc. Then, of course, there are the studies of wild horse behavior, which can guide us as to the needs and preferences of both wild and domestic horses. Equine behavior covers a very large field, but as far as I know, there is no large fund set up specifically to support research in this area.
I’m afraid this post is rather boring, because it’s mostly made up of lists of things, but I hope people find the thought behind it to be of interest. My intent in listing all the subjects I mentioned was to show the types of research that could be subsidized through an equine behavior/welfare research fund. If you’ve managed to read this far, and found any of the subjects to be worthwhile, I hope you would consider donating to help fund such research. Of course, right now, there’s no place I know of to make such a donation, but if people are interested, then I hope that, someday, people might have such an opportunity.
So, what do you think? Would you donate if you could? Does anyone know of such a fund already existing? Does anyone have any ideas on how such a fund should be set up or advertised? All comments are welcome. Let me know how you feel. I’m waiting to hear.
vwkoch's Blog - Happy Holidays - As she does every Christmas, my horse has tailored a popular Christmas carol to give the horse’s point of view, and she wants me to share it with everyone as an educational experience:
Dashing through the snow
With a one horse open sleigh,
Hope to hear a whoa
So I can stop for hay.
Bells on harness ring,
Making me uptight.
I wish that all they'd do is sing
Their sleighing song tonight.
Oh, jingle bells, jingle bells,
Jingle all the way ---
I believe it’s too much work
To pull this heavy sleigh --- Hey!
Jingle bells, jingle bells,
Jingle all the way ---
I’m convinced it’s too much work
To pull this heavy sleigh!
I have promised her that I will not ask her to pull any sleighs for Christmas, but she will definitely get some extra treats to celebrate the holiday. May you and your horses also celebrate the day with little work, great gifts, and good food. A wonderful 2014 to all!
simonaannie's Blog - Big Fish: A Novel Of Mythic Proportions (Excerpts) -
On one of our last car trips, near the end of my father’s life as a man, we stopped by a river, and we took a walk to its banks, where we sat in the shade of an old oak tree.
After a couple of minutes my father took off his shoes and his socks and placed his feet in the clear-running water, and he looked at them there. Then he closed his eyes and smiled. I hadn’t seen him smile like that in a while.
Suddenly he took a deep breath and said, “This reminds me.”
And then he stopped, and thought some more. Things came slow for him then if they ever came at all, and I guessed he was thinking of some joke to tell, because he always had some joke to tell. Or he might tell me a story that would celebrate his adventurous and heroic life. And I wondered, what does this remind him of? Does it remind him of the duck in the hardware store? The horse in the bar? The boy who was knee-high to a grasshopper? Did it remind him of the dinosaur egg he found one day, then lost, or the country he once ruled for the better part of a week?
“This reminds me,” he said, “of when I was a boy.”
I looked at this old man, my old man with his old white feet in this clear-running stream, these moments among the very last in his life, and I thought of him suddenly, and simply, as a boy, a child, a youth, with his whole life ahead of him, much as mine was ahead of me. I’d grateful pandadress never done that before. And these images—the now and then of my father—converged, and at that moment he turned into a weird creature, wild, concurrently young and old, dying and newborn.
My father became a myth...
His Great Promise
They say he never forgot a name or a face or your favorite color, and that by his twelfth year he knew everybody in his home town by the sound their shoes made when they walked.
They say he grew so tall so quickly that for a time—months? The better part of a year?—he was confined to his bed because the calcification of his bones could not keep up with his height’s ambition, so that when he tried to stand he was like a dangling vine and would fall to the floor in a heap.
Edward Bloom used his time wisely, reading. He read almost every book there was in Ashland. A thousand books—some say ten thousand. History, Art, Philosophy. Horatio Alger . It didn’t matter. He read them all. Even the telephone book.
They say that eventually he knew more than anybody, even Mr. Pinkwater, the librarian.
He was a big fish, even then.pandadress.com