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CPL (Chronic Progressive Lymphedema)
Equine Health
Tuesday 26th of July 2016 10:31 AM

CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE LYMPHEDEMA Emily and Mike Jewell own a small farm in southern Indiana and they breed and raise Friesian and Andalusian horses. At any given time they care for 10 or more horses, a few of which are Friesian and Andalusian mares. They stand two stallions, an Andalusian and their pride and joy Friesian stallion Keegan. Keegan is the celebrity in their area and has appeared in several magazines such as Horse Illustrated and Horse and Rider. Keegan and some of their other horses have been used in several Farnam ads. Keegan has really made a name for himself and Grace and Beauty farms with all of his accomplishments.  Emily understands that when it comes to horses, there is no shortage of maladies that they can suffer from. Take for example one of her Friesians. Emily noticed something was wrong when he was around 5 or 6 years old. Small nodules had appeared on the horse’s rear legs, just behind the hoofs. At first Emily thought he had scratches, but when the condition worsened, she researched and discovered that this was the early stage of Chronic Progressive Lymphedema (CPL), a lymphatic disorder that many draft horses, including Friesians are seemingly predisposed to.  Emily began treating her Friesian horse to slow the advancement of CPL but results were not positive. In spite of her efforts, the symptoms spread from the right rear leg to the left rear leg, then progressed to the two front legs.  She began to fear the inevitable - since there is no known cure, most heavy bodied horses with CPL have to be euthanized around 15 years old.    By chance, Emily was approached at a horse show by John Dovenmuehle who told her about Cytowave. “When he said “inflammation reduction” I really perked up.”  At this point, she was ready to try anything to slow down the progress of this relentless, inflammation based disease. Cytowave did not have a specific CPL based set of therapy signals, but it did have a robust pain/inflammation program that had proven effective with other inflammation based conditions, including cellulitis. “At first, I didn’t know what to think. We had tried everything up to this point but really didn’t have anything to lose.” Emily stated.   On April 27th, 2016,  Emily began to use Cytowave treatments exclusively on her horse.  After only 4 days of treatments, Emily noticed the inflammation had decreased. After the first week, the inflammation in the rear legs and the Cannon bone size had decreased as well.  The nodules and the folds were softer, not as hard to the touch and the Cytowave boots were easier to wrap around his legs due to the decreased swelling. Ther shift in her horse’s demeanor underscored that positive physical changes were taking place. “He was more relaxed and comfortable. When I let him out in the pen, he was more active, running and bucking,” Emily said.
After eight (8) days, the inflammation and Canon bone swelling continued to decrease.  The folds in the rear legs were not as thick and were separating. Folds and nodules were softer and more pliable. There was still some dampness and oily feeling in the creases of the back hoof area but overall, the lesions were drier and reducing in size. And for the first time in weeks she was able to massage his legs without any discomfort.  “He really began enjoying getting his legs massaged after his treatments,” Emily continued. “Overall he just seems really happy. I did not realize how much the disease had slowly robbed him of his spirit over the years because it was so gradual. Once he started feeling better, I realized I was getting my old horse back!” In the span of 10 days, measurements showed that the swelling had been substantially reduced. The Canon bone showed the most dramatic reduction in size, with the left leg going from 12 ½” to 10 ½”. On May 11th, Dr. Royal evaluated her horse and he noted that the Cytowave treatments had drastically reduced the swelling and inflammation. He said her horse seemed to be in very good health and his BAR (Bright, Alert, Responsive) was excellent.  He was in very good health, sound, with little sensitivity in the folds of his legs.   After twenty one (21) days of treatments, Emily continued to see positive results in slowing the progression of the CPL condition. The size of the folds and nodules decreased and lesions in the rear legs were drier and smaller. Pain and sensitivity in the folds of his legs lessened. His overall health improved and it was apparent that her horse felt much better. “At first he stamped his feet and was a bit agitated until he got used to the boots,” Emily said. “Now it’s a walk in the park for him and he really enjoys the treatments.” Her horse will continue with treatments and hopefully completely recover. As for Emily? She was so impressed with the results that she is now working for Cytowave to help promote their new technology. CONTACT INFORMATION:   Emily Jewell - Grace and Beauty Farms  Carlisle IN 812-691-1839  

10 Tips for Choosing the Best Hay for Your Horse
Equine Health
Tuesday 27th of December 2011 01:41 PM

1.    It’s what’s inside that counts.  Ask that one or several bales are opened so you can evaluate the hay inside the bales.  Do not worry about slight discoloration on the outside, especially in stacked hay.

2.    Choose hay that is as fine-stemmed, green and leafy as possible, and is soft to the touch.

3.    Avoid hay that is overcured, excessively sun-bleached, or smells moldy, musty, dusty or fermented. 

4.    Select hay that has been harvested when the plants are in early bloom for legume hay or before seed heads have formed in grasses.  Examine the leaves, stems and flowers or seed pods to determine the level of maturity.

5.    Avoid hay that contains significant amounts of weeds, dirt, trash or debris.




6.   Examine hay for signs of insect infestation or disease.  Be especially careful to check for blister beetles in alfalfa.  Ask the grower about any potential problems in the region.

7.   Reject bales that seem excessively heavy for their size of feel warm to the touch, as they could contain excess moisture that could cause mold, or worse, spontaneous combustion.

8.    When possible, purchase and feed hay within a year of harvest to preserve its nutritional value.

9.    Store hay in a dry, sheltered area out of the rain, snow and sun, or cover in the stack to protect it from the elements.

10.  When buying in quantity, have the hay analyzed by a certified forage laboratory to determine its actual nutrient content.

Remember that horses at different ages and stages of growth, development and activity have different dietary requirements.  Consult your veterinarian or a qualified equine nutritionist when formulating your horse’s ration.  He or she can help you put together a balanced diet that is safe, nutritious and cost-effective.

Just Being a Mare
Equine Health
Wednesday 19th of January 2011 10:00 PM

Just Being a Mare

By Betsy Kelleher


     If you are excusing a mare’s misbehavior with those words, “just being a mare,” a different perspective would be more effective. Husbands have been known to shrug off a wife’s emotions by saying, “she’s just being a woman,” and it only makes things worse! Mares are like women. They are both female and their problems deserve to be taken seriously. 

     Wise mare owners recognize hormonal behavior, but they don’t use that as an excuse for a lack of understanding. When mares behave badly, look for a physical reason or a training issue before blaming everything on hormones! You can’t fix something until you know what needs fixing.

     Let me tell you about a certain mare that became dangerous to ride. Everyone told her owner to just trade her in for a gelding. But this owner kept looking for an answer and didn’t give up. She finally found someone to look at the situation objectively, and the solution had nothing to do with gender. It had to do with a badly fitting saddle. Once that was changed and the mare was comfortable, this owner was able to enjoy her mare and find great satisfaction in the relationship. 

     A friend of mine bought a mare that kicked at other horses while ridden. Instead of accepting this as “mare behavior,” she worked to change it. It took consistent effort and some help from a trainer, but this same mare now can be ridden safely with other horses.

      Distinguishing “mare behavior” is the key. In a natural herd, mares have a great responsibility to take care of things and it helps to understand their instinctive role. When a mare is acting rude or dangerous, modification is needed. If the problem really is hormones, there are several natural supplements that can help a mare become calmer. I’ve used chamomile tea as well as Mare Magic with good results. Quite often, it is a training issue. Mares definitely need good training to help them overcome their emotional dispositions. Pain can often cause bad behavior, whether it’s a saddle or bit, or a need for chiropractic care. Riders can seek help from a good trainer to be sure the way they ride isn’t causing the problem. Some mares have experienced past trauma or abuse that causes unusually fearful behavior. Extra patience and understanding plus basic exercises can help create needed confidence and trust.

     Ride a gelding and put him away, and he probably won’t care. But a mare wants a close relationship (just like a woman). She wants your full attention and appreciates extra fussing and grooming - my Lady gives me hugs as I put her bridle on. If a woman feels loved, she will do anything for her man. A mare will give her all and more for an owner she trusts. Treat her like a lady, or you may regret it!                     

Full stories of both mares mentioned in this article are found in a book compiled by Betsy Kelleher, along with many other inspired tales about mares. For more information about  MARES! (ya gotta love em)…Fifty Stories to Aid & Inspire Mare Owners, visit Betsy’s website: and view her You Tube video at:  

Equine Health
Friday 23rd of July 2010 01:18 PM

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, or EPM, is a disease cause by a protozoal infection of the central nervous system of horses.

EPM was discovered in the 1960s by Dr. Jim Rooney. The disease is considered rare, though recently, an increasing number of cases have been reported. Research at the University of Kentucky has labeled the opossum as the definitive host of the disease.

EPM is caused by the parasite Sarcocystis neurona. In order to complete its life cycle this parasite needs two hosts, a definitive and an intermediate. In the laboratory, raccoons, cats, armadillos, skunks, and sea otters have been shown to be intermediate hosts. The oppossum is the definitive host of the disease. Horses most commonly contract EPM from grazing or watering in areas where an opossum has recently defecated. However, horses cannot pass the disease among themselves. That is, one horse cannot contract the disease from another infected horse. The horse is the dead-end, or aberrant, host of the disease.


The neurologic signs that EPM causes are most commonly asymmetric incoordination (ataxia), weakness and spasticity, although they may mimic almost any neurologic disorder. Clinical signs among horses with EPM include a wide array of symptoms that may result from primary or secondary problems. Some of the signs cannot be distinguished from other problems, such as lameness, which can be attributed to many different causes. Airway abnormalities, such as laryngeal hemiplegia (paralyzed flaps), dorsal displacement of the soft palate (snoring), or airway noise of undetermined origin may result from protozoa infecting the nerves which innervate the throat. Apparent lameness, particularly atypical lameness or slight gait asymmetry of the rear limbs are commonly caused by EPM. Focal muscle atrophy, or even generalized muscle atrophy or loss of condition may result. Secondary signs also occur with neurologic disease. Upward fixation of the patella (locking up of the stifle joint) is among the most common findings among horses with neurologic disease. Another common side effect of EPM is back soreness, which can be severe. The actual method by which the Sarcocystis neurona infects a horse is still unknown, however it is thought to preferentially infect leukocytes (white blood cells) in order to cross the blood brain barrier.

Treatment and prevention

This disease is curable if caught soon enough and treated with antiprotozoal drugs. There are currently three antiprotozoal treatments available: potentiated sulfonamide medications such as ReBalance, Marquis (ponazuril), and Navigator.

Control of this disease includes a recently released vaccine against the parasite and control of opposums in an area. The vaccine, however, has only been conditionally approved by the USDA until efficacy tests are available.


The Merck Veterinary Manual. 2006.

Retrieved 2007-07-03.

Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis Life Cycle


Hay Storage
Equine Health
Thursday 1st of October 2009 02:18 PM

Using and Storing Hay for Your Horse

Finding and storing hay can be a real challenge when weather patterns affect yields. Here are some helpful hints on estimating how much hay you may need, finding it and storing it.


How Much Hay Do I Need?

1) Figure our how much hay, in pounds, each horse consumes in one day. a 1000 lb. horse normally eats 20 lbs of good quality hay each day. Add extra pounds for colder weather, hard keepers, bigger horses, lower quality hay.

# of lbs each horse eats x # of horses = daily pounds needed

2) Multiply total pounds by number of days you need to feed. (Like from Nov. until May when the grass begins to grow) If you need over 2000 pounds of hay, convert to tons (total pounds/2000=# of tons).

Figure what you need like this:

# of lbs per day x # of days to feed = total lbs / 2000 = # of tons you need

3) Subtract the amount of hay you have on hand. To figure it out weigh yourself holding a bale and then not holding a bale. Subtract the lower number from the higher. That is how much your bale weighs. Do that with a few bales then average the weight. That is the figure you use to find how many pounds or tons of hay you have on hand.

# of bales x bale weight in lbs = total lbs / 2000 = total tons on hand

# of tons you need - # of tons on hand = amount you need to buy

Storing Your Hay

It is vital that you store your hay properly! Improper storage leads to mold, which can cause colic and even death in horses and ponies. Also, if it is hay cutting season, don't feed fresh cut alfalfa, it must cure for at least 90 days. Another alfalfa warning: crimped alfalfa that contains Blister Beetles can be deadly to equines. Have you alfalfa checked for blister beetles before you buy! The crushed beetles crystallize forming a chemical that causes horses terrible pain and even death.

Other hays to avoid: Johnson Grass - can have extremely high levels of nitrogen that can kill horses. Sudan and Improved Sudan - suitable for cows, not horses. Any hay grown specifically for cattle may have higher quantities of some nutrients that are not good for horses.

Your hay must be OFF THE GROUND, even if you have a floor in your hay storage area. Use pallets, old tires, plastic tarps or some other moisture barrier to keep you hay off the ground. Ideal would be a plastic tarp on the ground with pallets on top, then hay. You can find pallets for free in the newspaper and in industrial areas. Be sure the pallets don't have toxic chemicals on them.

For fresh cut hay, stack it with the cut sides up. This allows moisture to evaporate more easily. Leave a few inches in between bales for air circulation and stack your bales in alternating layers with bottom bales going one direction and successive layers alternating.



Tips for keeping your horse cool in the summer heat
Equine Health
Tuesday 30th of June 2009 12:50 AM

All winter, horse lovers dream of balmy summer days, when we can gallop across the countryside on our favorite horses. However, once those lazy and hazy summer days arrive, we must take extra precautions to keep our horses cool!

shelter from the sun
Searing heat and sweltering humidity can be dangerous for horses. Every year, numerous cases of colic, dehydration, and respiratory distress are attributed to warmer summer weather. Worse, potentially fatal heatstroke or exhaustion causes a few deaths each summer. Thankfully, however, responsible horse care and vigilance when the temperatures rise is all most horses need to cruise through summer in comfort. To help your horse beat the heat, keep the following tips in mind:
 Water Staying hydrated will help your horse stay cool and is especially important when temperatures are high enough to cause the horses to sweat through the day.

Electrolytes In addition to powder electrolytes, you can increase your horse's water consumption by offering a bucket of flavored gatoraide or soaking your horse's hay for 30 minutes before feeding.



Ventilation Consider barn-cooling options to keep your horse cool in the summer. If your horses spend time in a stall or loafing shed, consider fans (ranging from box fan type to overhead fans which can lower a barns temperature up to 15 degrees!) There are also cooling mist systems that can be installed with a garden hose and can lower the temperature of a barn or loafing shed as much as an overhead fan.



Baths Sponge or hose down the large blood vessels along the inside of the legs, belly, and neck. Don’t spray the horse’s face or get water in its ears—sponge them down gently.



Fodder Mid to late summer weather often means that grass growth slows down and pasture quality declines. Make sure your horse is getting enough fodder and consider supplementing with hay if necessary. Horses need energy to stay warm and cool. Adjust your feed mixture if your horse begins to lose condition in hot weather.


 Coat Care Clip horses with heavy coats. Be careful not to clip too close however, since exposed skin can sunburn. Apply zinc oxide cream to horses with pink noses to prevent and treat sunburn.

signs of heatstroke
A common misconception is that hot summer weather only affects work or show horses. This is untrue. While active horses are more susceptible to a rise in temperature, extreme heat can quickly take its toll on any horse. In fact, heatstroke can occur whether your horse is plowing a field, standing in a stuffy stall, or traveling in a trailer.

Heatstroke occurs when your horse is unable to rid his body of excess heat. Your horse's body has a natural cooling process. However, extreme heat and humidity can overpower your horse's ability to cool himself. To compensate, the body redistributes blood flow closer to the skin, which aids cooling. However, this mechanism causes internal organs and the brain to receive less oxygen. Add excessive sweating into the mix, which causes a loss of fluids and electrolytes, and the results can be disastrous. Signs of heatstroke - also known as heat stress or heat exhaustion - include:

  • Elevated respiration in an inactive horse (normal range is 4 to 16 breaths per minute).
  • Elevated pulse in an inactive horse, pulse that does not drop after several minutes, or climbs once exercise has stopped.
  • Profuse sweating or no sweating at all.
  • Elevated body temperature above 103F.
  • Irregular heart beat known as ‘thumps.’
  • A depressed attitude.
  • Dehydration. Test for this by observing your horse’s flanks. If they look caved in, he is probably dehydrated. Pick up a pinch of skin along your horse’s neck. If the skin snaps back quickly, the horse is sufficiently hydrated. If the pinched area collapses slowly, the horse is dehydrated.

Heatstroke is a serious condition. Severe cases of heatstroke lead to collapse, seizures, or loss of your horse. If you suspect your horse is suffering from heatstroke, immediately take measures to help cool him. Contact your veterinarian if symptoms persist or his condition worsens. To help cool your horse:

maintain overall health
Your horse's ability to beat the summer heat depends, in part, on his overall health. Sick or injured equines may not have the energy necessary to naturally cool themselves. Similarly, internal parasites can rob your horse of his health and make him even more susceptible to heat exhaustion or stress. Furthermore, your horse can expend large amounts of energy fleeing the swarm of biting insects that usually accompanies summer weather and further expose himself to the elements.


As such, it is important to keep your horse current on his deworming schedule. Suitable insect sprays, fly sheets and masks, and barn and stable traps can also help protect your horse from flies, mosquitoes, and gnats. Together with diligent horse care, you and your horse should be set to enjoy the endless fun of summer.

Why are grass clippings dangerous for horses?
Equine Health
Monday 4th of May 2009 01:43 AM

It's that time of the year and chances are good that you've already revved up the lawn mower. Please take special caution, do not dispose of grass clippings where equines can eat them. A pile of grass clippings is very attractive to horses, ponies and donkeys but once eaten can prove fatal.

Eating grass clippings can cause colic, and if the grass begins to ferment it can cause a lethal build up of gasses within the gut. This causes the animal severe pain and damage to the digestive system, resulting in a horrible death.

Grass clippings allowed to accumulate and decay in a pile will provide a suitable substrate for Clostridium botulinum (botulism bug). In the same way, silage allowed to ferment at the wrong pH will also allow growth of the bug, and so incorrectly prepared big-bale silage causes botulism. The bacteria grow in the plant matter and form the botulism toxin, which is then ingested causing botulism. How long it takes the toxin to form will depend on speed of multiplication of the bacteria, which in turn depends on the moisture and the environmental temperature (which affect pH). In spring with nice moist grass I wouldn't expect it to take long.

Botulism in horses is frequently fatal, causing flaccid paralysis (weakness of the muscles) and dysautonomia (a bit like grass sickness but not). Symptoms usually depend on the amount of toxin ingested - large quantities will cause almost sudden death, modest quantities will cause weakness, tremors and gradual paralysis of the jaw and muscles involved in breathing (leading to eventual suffocation). In horses colic is often the first sign, sometimes resembling grass sickness, or in milder cases choke may be seen first (food becomes impacted in the oesophagus - not to be confused with human choking, which is in the trachea). Only the mild cases will survive, with early agressive therapy being key.

All garden waste should be disposed of in a responsible manner, and not dumped where grazing animals may find it.

Equine Health
Sunday 9th of December 2007 08:39 AM

Request from a member who would to discuss this topic.
This is a topic that could be discussed before foaling season. We had a bout with it last spring. People in our area had trouble with it in their newborn calves also. Almost lost 2 foals with it. It also pertains to humans.  
Sara Schmidt
Rotavirus infections of animals

Rotaviruses infect and cause diarrhea in young animals. They have been shown to infect mammals,apes,cattle,pigs,sheep,rats,cats,dogs,mice,rabbits and birds including chickens and turkeys.These rotaviruses are a potential reservoir for genetic exchange with human rotaviruses. There is evidence that animal rotaviruses can infect humans, either by direct transmission of the virus or by contributing one or several RNA segments to reassortants with human strains.Rotaviruses are a cause of economic loss to farmers because of costs of treatment associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.

In countries with a temperate climate rotavirus infections occur mainly in the winter and early spring. In the tropical countries rotavirus infections occur all the year round.

Scours in cattle was caused by an infectious agent smaller than a bacteriuma virus.Samples of the infectious agent were preserved and decades later shown to be rotavirus.

Specific diagnosis of infection with rotavirus A is made by identification of the virus in the patient's stool. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is the method most widely used to test these specimens, and several licensed test kits are used. These test kits are very sensitive, specific and detect all serotypes of rotavirus A.These kits are also used to diagnose infections of animals.

Treatment of acute rotavirus infection involves management of symptoms and most importantly maintenance of hydration. Depending on the severity of diarrhea,treatment consists of oral rehydration with plain water,water plus salts,or water plus salts and sugar.

Electron micrograph of Rotaviruses
Electron micrograph of Rotaviruses. The bar = 100 nm


Response 1
Monday 10th of December 2007 07:47:45 PM
Submitted by: Sara Schmidt
We had a total of 4 foals out of 6 affected by this virus last year.It was so hard to keep these foals up and sucking. They one by one showed signs of loose stools and loss of appitite. We are fortunate enough to have a family member who is a vet. He administered IVs and antibiotics. The first 2 foals where not affected but after the weather chenged everything started. Usually at 2 to 3 days old. I have found a product that helps keep the flora in the foals stomachs and that helped increase their appitite. It is FLOAGEN and you can buy it over the counter at a drug store. You need to ask for it because it is a live bactera it needs to be refrigerated. I also pumped our mares and fed the foals periodically untill their appitite came back to normal. And the foals went back to sucking the mares as normal. I know it hit in the mid west last year. Many of our neighbors lost calves with it and several humans were also diagnosed with it. So please keep a watchful eye. I know many people have their foals born in their pastures and that is one reason why it hit so many calves and they were lost. I hope noboby has to deal with it but keep it in mind when your mares are near foaling.

What is Mud Fever and can it be prevented?
Equine Health
Sunday 9th of December 2007 01:06 AM

Mud fever is known by other names, cracked heel, scratches, rain rot, muddy heel, mud rash. It seems to be attracted to horses that have white feet. Constant exposure to muddy fields allows the bacteria in the mud dermatophilus congolensis to infiltrate the heel of the horse.

Despite all those so-called expert's claims of doom and gloom and global warming, every winter it seems to rain enough for our horses to poach up their fields and be left standing up to their knees in mud. To some horses the wet conditions result in the painful discomfort of equine mud fever and many owners dread the winter because of the misery it causes.

The result can vary depending on the time of exposure, but with added contact to the muddy ground, the scabby sking can suddenly become an open, weeping wound, raw and bleeding. For some unknown reason, the back legs are affected more than the front legs.

Mud fever is stubborn and hard to treat. It clings to the feet and the horse becomes sensitive to you handling their feet. In severe cases, getting the horse onto dry areas and out of the mud will help to speed recovery, but then you have a stalled horse that will grow bored out of his mind.

It's quite nasty to treat, because the scabby portion of the mud fever sores needs to be removed in order for the ointment to have proper contact to the skin. This involves some scraping.

The only cure I have found to effectively treat it- is called Aromaheel. You order it out of the United Kingdom and I highly recommend that you do. There is nothing else that I have found that touches this and cures it as quickly as Aromaheel does, that is, if the rain stops! I found out the hard way, you can't cure this until the mud dries up.

Dermatophilus congolensis, the causative agent of mud fever

 Dermatophilus congolensis

Dermatophilosis (sometimes called Mud fever) in animals and humans, a dermatologic condition that manifests itself with the formation of crusty scabs that contain the microorganism.

This photo above shows quite bad mud fever on a ponys hind legs resulting in the scabby appearance around the fetlock and heels with some swelling of the area.

Muddy Field

A good situation to try and avoid to help prevent mud fever!

Does anyone have knowledge on Mud Fever and would you like to share some remedies with us?

Response 1
Sunday 3rd of August 2008 04:50:09 AM
Submitted by: Carrie Harrington
I have a solid paint with a white sock and he has had issues with scratches. A vet told me to shave the affected areas then scrub down with betadine rinse and dry completely. Once dry take regular garden lime and rub over area daily until gone. It worked great also keep stalled in dry shavings.

Equine Health
Friday 7th of December 2007 09:22 AM

Rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1 and EHV-4)

Rhinopneumonitis. Two distinct viruses, equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4), cause two different diseases. Both cause respiratory tract problems, and EHV-1 may also cause abortion, foal death and paralysis. Infected horses may be feverish and lethargic, and may lose appetite and experience nasal discharge and a cough. Young horses suffer most from respiratory tract infections by these viruses. Rhinopneumonitis is spread by aerosol and by direct contact with secretions, utensils or drinking water. Virus may be present but not apparent in carrier animals.

Pregnant mares, foals, weanlings, yearlings and young horses under stress are candidates to be vaccinated. Immune protection is short. Therefore, pregnant mares are vaccinated at least during the fifth, seventh, and ninth months of gestation and youngsters at high risk need a booster at least every three months. Many veterinarians recommend vaccination at two-month intervals year-round for high-risk animals.

  • Foals: First dose: 4 to 6 months Second dose: 5 to 7 months Third dose: 6 to 8 months Then at 3-month intervals
  • Yearlings and Adult Horses: Booster every 3 to 4 months up to annually as prescribed by veterinarian
  • Broodmares: Fifth, seventh, ninth month of gestation (inactivated EHV-1 vaccine); optional dose at third month of gestation. Vaccination of mares before breeding and 4 to 6 weeks pre-partum is suggested.

Many combination vaccines are available. Please check with your local equine practitioner.

Appropriate vaccinations are the best and most cost-effective weapon you have against common infectious diseases of the horse. A program designed with the help and advice of your local veterinarian will help keep your horses healthy, and you happy for many years to come.

Mare and Foal

There are alot of mis-concepts about this shot and I have heard of many horse owners that are afraid to give this shot. Give us some feed back on your past experience's with this shot?


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